Subdirectory for EFM studies referred to in the ‘MAYDAY’ series & ‘False Assoc.’ posted during the months of March, May & August 2019

by faithgibson on September 10, 2019

This is a shortlist of studies, mixed as to dates and including at least two that are about a implementation of protocols for mother-centered monitoring

Currently, there are only 6 links, but more will be added over time.


MAYDAY Series: Ref #1 ~ EFM as a Public Health Screening Program: The Arithmetic of Failure” by Dr David Grimes

A “Must Read” as part of our Mayday 2019 series. It is re-posted from American College of  Community Midwives website ~


MAYDAY Series: Ref #2 ~ A Quick History of Fetal Monitoring as a Verb: Auscultation ~ and names of physician-inventors

A quick history of fetal monitoring: Auscultation ~ verbs, nouns, and names of physician-inventors The first person to report hearing the sound of an unborn baby’s heartbeat was a 17th century physician by the name of Dr. Marsac. A contemporary of his, a Dr. Killian, was the first to ponder the possibility that the rate and rhythm […]


MAYDAY Series: Ref #3 ~ Data Bite on the Frequent Disagreements btw professionals on Interpretation of EFM strips     Synopsis: Disagreement btw obstetricians on EFM data whether an emergent C-section is needed and studies in which obstetricians disagreed with their original conclusion when provided with the very same monitor strip 6 months later.

The other ‘elephant’ in the room when interpreting c-EFM data is the incredible lack of agreement between obstetricians over the data being streamed […]


MAYDAY Series: Ref #4 ~ Scientific Paper: Part 1 (of 2) Fetal Monitoring: Creating a Culture of Safety With Informed Choice”  Lisa Heelan, MSN, FNP-BC*

Journal of Perinat Education ~ 2013 Summer; 22(3): 156–165. doi: 10.1891/1058-1243.22.3.156

Abstract The dominant culture in labor and birth is the medical model, not the midwifery model of woman-centered care. Consensus among professional and governmental groups is that, based on […] PMCID: PMC4010242 PMID: 24868127


MAYDAY Series: Ref #5 ~ Scientific Paper: Part 2 (of 2) Fetal Monitoring: Creating a Culture of Safety With Informed Choice”   [Link above in part one]

Part 2 — (a) Efficacy; (b) Barriers to Laboring Woman’s Informed Consent EFFICACY OF EFM In 2004, 28,014 neonates died, reflecting 0.68% of all U.S. births that year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2004).

Chen et al. (2011) compared EFM to no EFM in labor using data from U.S. birth certificates from […]


MAYDAY Series: Ref #6 ~ New Engl Journal Med : Uncertain Value of Electronic Fetal Monitoring in Predicting Cerebral Palsy   March 7, 1996 .  Word count 3470

Palsy Karin B. Nelson, M.D., James M. Dambrosia, Ph.D., Tricia Y. Ting, B.S., and Judith K. Grether, Ph.D.  New England Journal Medicine 1996;    334:613-619 DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199603073341001



Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring Update: The Good, the Bad and the Atypical
    The Female Patient April 2011, includes 8 additional references

“Despite the widespread use of EFM, there has been no decrease in cerebral palsy. … a meta-analysis of randomized control trials has shown that EFM has no effect in perinatal mortality or pediatric neurologic morbidity.2

However, EFM is associated with an increase in the rate of operative vaginal and cesarean deliveries.1”