List of nouns and other “idea words” used in the US Constitution, very few of which address individual rights

by faithgibson on May 10, 2023

An alphabetical list of the 511 nouns and “concept” words that appear among the 4,543 words printed in the United States Constitution and how this vocabulary affects our individual rights and personal lives

Based on each of the 4,543 words — particularly the nouns and idea-words — the logical conclusion is the US Constitution created an impersonal  system of democratic governance modeled on the democratic principles used successfully by the ancient Greeks, Romans and highly-regarded English system going back to the Magna Carta in 1203, which established a Parliamentary system of representational government.

The framers of the Constitution did a masterful job of creating a democratic system of self-governance that included “separation of government powers”, “checks and balances”, and elections of public representatives and other officials of the federal government.

The most radical departure was to declare the United States to be a country under under Aristotle’s concept of “rule of law”. As noted in Articles 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 of the Constitution, all citizens and legal residents regardless of social status (except for Justices of the Supreme Court) are bound by laws that are publicly accessible, independently arbitrated, and equally enforced and both included habeas corpus” and trial by a jury of one’s peers.

The last two — habeas corpus and trial by jury — were a hot topic for the all-male world of politically-active American colonists. In the two decade before our war for independence (1763-75), George III considered American colonists to be disloyal insurrectionists, so the many political activists recognized today as our “founding fathers”, faced a constant barrage of strong-arm tactics by British soldiers.

Colonists who spoke out in public or printed “seditious” materials were arrested by British soldiers and thrown in jail. These prisoners were then held for months without any legal evidence of a crime — i.e. no habeas corpus or ‘produce the dead body‘ or comparable evidence — and no jury trial to punish the guilty and free the innocent.

As full British citizens, the American colonists were outraged to have their very own government deny them the elegantly-stated civil rights ensconced in centuries of English law that went back to the Magna Carta. This issue was the core reason for fighting the Revolutionary War — a demand by British-American colonists to either have their considerable civil rights as English citizens respected (i.e. having the British-American colonies be governed by duly elected British-American colonists), or to become fully independent from the government of England, which had become hostile and vindictive towards its own citizens.

When trying to understand the US Constitution as it applies to us today, it’s helpful to see it in the light of the historical events that preceded our independence from the British Empire and in regard to the fact that slavery was a legal institution from 1608 to 1865 and the abuse of power based on non-white skin color continued to be ipso facto legal in Southern states during the “Jim Crow” period from 1870 to passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1965. Unfortunately, the passage of such cannot and has not eliminates personal prejudice, racial bias and gratuitous violence.

The Constitution’s list of individual rights is very short and leaves out more than it includes

Unfortunately the list of rights memorialized in our Constitution (noted above) is brief, while what it did not acknowledge, grant, or protect is very long.

Not included was the sanctity of human life — the right of a person to not be “purchased”  as a piece of “property” and enslaved as a non-person that the slave owner could legally work to death or kill outright without any legal recourse, as the crime ‘murder’ applied only to people and not to humans as “property”.

The Constitution contains no language that prevents discrimination against American citizens based on their gender, race, religion or economic status.

The Constitution also did not acknowledge or protect the natural right of a free people to own their personal lives by having control over the integrity of their physical bodies. The US Constitution does not contain a single word that acknowledges a natural or legal right to say “no” to child marriage, forced marriage or acknowledge the right to marry a partner of the same sex, a right to say “no” to unwanted sexual activity or to permit a woman of childbearing age to use abstinence or contraceptives to prevent an untenable pregnancy.

Last but certainly not least, there isn’t a single word that recognizes the basic human right to not be forced to become a mother by acknowledging a woman’s right to safely and legally terminate an untenable pregnancy prior to the stage of viability. Based on the words printed in the US Constitution, persons living in the United States are not a “free people”. Without inclusion of the Bill of Rights, slavery is still “constitutional” as is ownership of married women by their husbands, and has been asserted as recently a 25 years ago, husbands cannot be prosecuted for raping their wives because legally the wife must surrender to the sexual demands of their husband, so spousal rate is not a crime.

The US Constitution is an impersonal organizational Flow Chart for running a democratic government at the national level with very little to say about our rights as individuals.

Have identified what the US Constitution is not — a definer and defender of individual rights — we now can appreciate what is and what it does well, which is of very elegant organization flow chart for running a national government under a bureaucratic system of democratically-elected and appointed officials and federal employees.

Based on the 511 nouns and concepts in the US Constitution is functionally a blueprint or ‘flow chart’ for a representative democracy based on three independent branches of government that exercises their legal and political powers separately. This depends on a system of national elections that provide an opportunity for its citizens to choose, via majority vote, the president of the United States and the individuals who will represent the interests of their state or district in the US Congress.

The third branch of the federal system is the Supreme Court. Unlike the executive and legislative branches of the federal government, the nine justices do not participate in the electoral system. Instead the Constitution authorises the  president to choose the justices that will sit on Supreme Court, but the president’s appointments must first be approved by a majority vote of the US Senate.

What the Constitution quite obviously is not is a comprehensive document that addresses or defines every aspect of human existence — physical, sexual, social, religious, economic or political —  within the legal territory of the United States.  The 511 nouns or “objects of discussion and determinations” chosen in 1787 is just a tiny sliver of the many millions of words in the English language.  that are not in it, persons living in the United States are not a “free people”.

It’s about the who, what, when and how of these three branches of government in relation to concepts such as “separation of powers” and “checks and balances”. It was never about granting or protecting individual freedoms, but always was laser focused on running of a large and diverse country as a democracy.

When Supreme Court Justice Alito  wrote the Dobbs decision, he in essence claimed that the rule of law in the United states is based on the words that appear in the US Constitution. Since the word “abortion” was not in the Constitution, then abortion has no “constitutional” protection of any sort so states legislatures are free to pass laws making abortion illegal. By categorizing abortion to be a criminal act, laws can be passed that make it a crime to help a girl or woman obtain an abortion — giving her a phone number, driving her to an appointment, or as healthcare practitioner, providing a prescription for a drug like misoprostol.

Looking to our Constitution as the “end all” and “be all” of our human rights as American citizens is like an airplane pilot reading the schematic drawing and parts list for a Boeing 707 for take-off and landing instructions. While the original schematic will always be vital to the maintenance of the aircraft, the active verbs of flying it come from a very different mind-set.

The United States Constitution is a blueprint for a democratic process that can and should be use to govern a representative democracy. From that standpoint, our Constitution is an extraordinary gift to Americans of every generation since its signing on September 17th, 1787.  But if we an individuals, or as elected or appointed officials of the federal government look to the Constitution to as the official source for defining our rights and obligations as human beings and American citizens, we simply will not find what we seek. That the Constitution, for all its virtues, did not include any systematic definition of our rights as individual citizens and legal residents. Period.

While it cannot be definitively proved, we do know that undeniable fact of slavery as an American institution was lurking in the mind every delegate. Those from the South were determined to fight to the death for the right to a life-style made possible by slave labor, while those from the northern states would do almost anything to end slavery as a legal practice.

Unfortunately, the capture and enslavement of Africans by agents for the southern states was officially acknowledged in the US Constitution as legal the passage of the “3/5th compromise” when it was by passed by a majority vote by the Constitutional delegates.

Functionally, the “3/5th compromise” was a way to keep a relative balance in congressional representation between northern, non-slave holding states and southern slave-holding states. The total number of representatives from each state in the Congress was based on their population. If each slave was counted as a person, representation in the US Senate and House of Representatives would be overwhelming from Southern slave states. If slaves weren’t counted at all, the South would be overwhelmed by the number of representative from northern states.

Hence the “3/5th Compromise”. The delegates from all the Southern states made it plain that without that “comprise”, they would all leave, never to return. The fact and fate of the United States of American hung by a slender thread. If it broke, the entire Revolutionary War would be for naught.

What passage of the provision actually “compromised”  was our most basic moral and legal principles -“thou shalt not kill”, that human life is ‘sacred’, that we are admonished to “love one another” and “don’t do to others what you would not want done to you”.

This compromise was the espoused basis of our democracy, but it was not the real foundation of American society. The reason is plain enough — it sat atop the acceptance of slavery as legal and the voluntary cooperation with slaveholders by northern states which arrested and returned runaway slaves as the property of their “masters”. In practical terms, that describe a legal relationship in which one human being “purchases” another human being, and is said to “own” that human being as a piece of his or her personal ‘property’. As personal property, they legally can use, misuse, and even kill that person simply because the actual fact of humanness as been erased as full as dropping an atomic bomb.

After a swallowing that big black lie and then making it the basis for our social norms, a century of racial segregation as A-OK. At a personal level, it becomes OK to cheat, beat, sexually abuse, rape and kill other people if they are black, female, an immigrate, a member of the ‘wrong’ religion or wrong political party, or a convicted prisoner. Ever since our Founding Fathers voted “yea” for the 3/5th compromise, which seemed like the best of two evils, the United States has been a house of straw built on shifting sands. One can make a very compelling argument against that choice, that based on ethical principles, they should have stood their ground and “let the pieces fall where they may”. More likely than not, the country we call the “United States of America” simply would never have existed.

Cosmic pay-back for that one moral lapse — constitutional acknowledgement that legally enslaved populations are ‘property’ and not ‘persons’

Nonetheless, Americans continue to pay a price every day, and in every way, as the number of physical and political crimes against humanity pile higher and higher.  Currently we have a political version of “organized crime” such as waged by the Klu Klux Klan, Mafia, other “crime families”  only now these extremist groups cloke their crimes in patriotism, describing themselves as “militias” and other para-military insurrectionists group who are simply ‘defending” America from the “infidels”. They call themselves the Three Percenters, Oath Keepers, Proud Boys, Texas Freedom Force, and other self-described Nazis and white supremacists labels.  They are paranoid, racially prejudiced, misogynists, anti-semitic, and fueled by hate.

I personally believe that society has failed these young men, as well as many other who don’t become famous for hates crimes and other criminal acts. American as a country does not acknowledge the intrinsic social and developmental needs of teenage boys (12 to 16) to be actively supported and guided by caring male adults in as they take on the manly arts of being a well-adjusted adult male.

In spite of our failures as a society, these individuals still must to be held legally responsible for their crimes. But we don’t have to commit a “hate crime” ourselves by hating them. Virtually every one of these mass shooters was failed by the circumstances of their family, institutional failures or by having an undiagnosed or untreated mental illness. While no social structure is perfect, the global statistics for mass shooting events put America in first places, three time higher that the very high rate and many time higher than all the other countries. Since human species is the same all over the world, the US has clearly ‘dropped the ball”.

Many but not all members of these groups roam the street carrying weapons of war and looking to scare, intimidate, and sometimes for the fun of it, shot a few innocent bystanders. Some of the victims of this gratuitous violence have become household names, like George Floyd and Tyron ?? Tyson {ck name}, but most are just nameless kids, teens, and adults who happen to be the ‘wrong color’, immigrants typified as “illegal aliens” or in the wrong place at the wrong time — a church, a shopping mall, a school, a movie theater, Fourth of July parade, music concert, a restaurant, a dance, just walking down the street — the list goes on and on and on!

The daily American ritual of one or more mass shooting events is a relatively new social pathology. It wasn’t invented by Trump, but it certain was and continues to be stoked by the MAGA movement in ways that trigger a demographic that already was having a real hard time coping with the demands of being an adult male. Often, but not always, the shooter is a  young, disaffected, usually white male teenagers or very young adult with an affection for guns that has turned into an all-encompassing obsession. So far, there are no Twelve-step programs like Alcoholic Anonymous (Weapons-of-War Anonymous), but someday there will be.

The main reasons these young men become killers falls into two major categories, with lots of overlap. The first is the somewhat “normal” agony of adolescence. Whether we worried about flunking out or about pimples and dating, high school made a lot of us miserable as teens. We are so happy as adults that were never have to be a teenage high school student again!

The sociology of high school is organized around “clicks” that include the “in crowd” and the “left outs” — all those lonely kids that one by one don’t make the cut and become invisible in the crowd.

Now add a mental illness and the influence of these personal demons — all the “sins of the fathers” — and an impersonal society that left this kid a mental wreck. If this 18 yr old hadn’t been a “killer”,  we would think and talk about them as “kids”, which developmentally they still are. However, with a AK-15 or other automatic weapon in their hands, they are just ageless killers.

Living in a technologically-enhances “land of plenty” where our “work” as individuals is mostly irrelevant to the rest of society

In 2023, virtually no one has to farm or hunt in order to eat. No one needs to learn how carpentry skills so they can build their own house. We don’t have to buy, stable, groom and care for a couple of horses to plow our fields, pull wagon to haul the harvest to market, or take us on a buggy ride to visit relatives living on another farm.

The energetic physical abilities and active imagining of adolescent boys are no longer needed to help their parents continue to feed and house their families. There is no purpose and no person to teach growing male child how to

With the exception of feet to carry us from to care for our

The other reason that someone’s teenage or young adult male can so easily become a killer with an AK15 is the large on-line presence of the ‘disaffected’ with other disaffected like themselves. These are mostly white males under 30 whose spend the majority of their waking hours “surfing the net”.

Eventually they become enamored with others like themselves who simply don’t have much going on in their “real” lives. Without any real “purpose” to their lives, they quite naturally seek and find the company of other like themselves to be a very satisfying way to spend their days and nights. This type of ‘grouping’ produces an echo chamber; ideas are either instantly rejected or amplified and reiterated again and again, until its as GOD is personally directing you adopt these ideas as your personal identity. If these kids and young adults nationalists”. With no hope of ever having a meaningful life and no reason to stop himself  he can at least go out in a blaze of glory, his name forever

That was crystal clear to the framers of the Constitution while they were still writing it. Many of the delegates argued for adding a section to the Constitution that would spell out our “natural” rights as individuals. But it was a very long hot summer and they were all very tired of arguing over words and concepts.

However three of the delegates — Mason, Madison and ??? — said they were not sign the Constitution unless a it acknowledged the principles of “natural” rights — that people as individuals, whether citizens or not, had “inalienable” rights in addition to the few noted in the Constitution (habeas corpus, jury trial, protection from self-incrimination). So the delegates agreed that a separate document — the Bill of Rights — would be            Unfortunately

The Beginning:

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


Our democratic republic formally began with the “Declaration of Independence” written  by Thomas Jefferson in 1876. It formally declared and documented America as a sovereign country and independent nation separate from British rule and equal to all other the sovereign countries.

The original “Articles of Confederation” defined the United States of America to be a confederation of sovereign states. It was written in 1777 and adopted in by all the 13 states by 1781. However, this document turned out to be unworkable. Many newly-minted American politicians felt that

the shattered fabric of the original constitution” had “to be repaired and enlarged, or a “new and stately building” erected upon the old foundation.” (Pennsylvania Herald, 19 May 1787)

So a “Constitutional Convention” convened in Philadelphia during the unusually hot summer of 1787. Delegates from 12 states (Rhode Island demurred) convened in Philadelphia from May 25th to September the 16th. The official purpose was to revise the Articles of Confederation. The Delegates appointed by their state legislatures. The many of the names of these “Founding Fathers” are familiar — George Washington, who was appointed chair of the assembly, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton

from all the states were was attended by 55 educated, property-owning, free white men sent as representative of their state legislatures took on the job of hammering out the US Constitution word-by-word, sometimes fighting over competing principles, other times arguing for days at a time over a specific vocabulary choices.

To boldly go where no man had gone before!

The Constitution was first published on the 17th of September

The noble goal of forming a “more perfect union” but ultimately that failed because

  • Between
  • The convention was the site of spirited debate over the size, scope, and structure of the federal government, and its result was the United States Constitution.
  • The notorious Three-Fifths Compromise apportioned representation to the southern slaveholding states in a scheme that counted five enslaved men and women as three.

checks and balances, principle of government under which separate branches are empowered to prevent actions by other branches and are induced to share power. Checks and balances are applied primarily in constitutional governments. They are of fundamental importance in tripartite governments, such as that of the United States, which separate powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

The Greek historian Polybius analyzed the ancient Roman mixed constitution under three main divisions: monarchy (represented by the consul); aristocracy (the Senate); and democracy (the people). He greatly influenced later ideas about the separation of powers.

During the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787,The most basic function of our Constitution was to replace the structure of governance imposed by the English Crown for 181 years beginning in 1608 with a system for self-governance as a democratic republic by bringing various independent groups together to form a unified whole as a sovereign country

?addressed our

Next the Founding Fathers would need to identifiy the powers ??/ create on organized process for  our powers of internal protection by creating structure of the governance at the federal level and state level 13 states. The federal government consisted of three independent branches that included the legislative powers invested in the US Congress, executive powers granted to duly elected presidents, and a judicial system that authorized the appointment of judges and a system of courts. It was to be run by democratically elected or appointed by elected officials, which at that time would be restricted to free, white, property-owning men.?

provided the legal ability to defend American citizens against bodily harm and exploitation and protect America economic interests from encroachment by foreign powers.

needed to agree on a organizational structure (similar to a corporate flow chart) for the federal government that identified the primary positions of responsibility and the scope of the authority it bestowed on those who were elected or appointed to them, followed by the distribution of authority within a descending bureaucratic developed to carry out in real-time the responsibilities of the federal government

The Middle

Our American Constitution was also the first step in determining the general principles of individual freedoms that would grant and protect us an individuals and provide personal property rights. However, the Constitution itself doesn’t actually identify the specific rights of individuals except for the six issues below.

The first mention of individuals is listed under “powers granted to the US Congress“. They define the qualification for election to the House of Representatives and to the US Senate, stating a minimum age, residency and citizenship requirements.

1 “No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.”

2 No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The second time that the Constitution addressed personal rights and protections is in Section 9, which is a list of “Powers Denied to Congress”. It begins with a provision that legally prohibits the importation of slaves after 1808, authorizes states to apply an “import tax” on imported slaves not to exceed $10 each, amd forbidding the Habeas corpus from being suspended or passage of any “Bill of Attainder” and ex post facto laws.

While these are critical protections for certain legal rights, none of them acknowledge the unique concerns faced by girls and women or provides for the right of self-determination for members of the female gender.

3. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, (1808), but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

4 The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

5 No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

6 Persons holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

The End: what the US Constitution did and didn’t do, and what that means to us today

However, These 55 men did a very good job of crafting a document that organized a stable and effective state and federal governments systems of administration and propagate an economically stable society in which goods and services could be bought and sold, fortunes made and lost, but for the most part, famine and starvation of its citizens would be averted.


If we, as individuals and as a democratic republic we will utterly disappointed if we depend on the vocabulary of the US Constitution to defend our freedoms and rights as adult citizens to include self-determination, bodily autonomy and the right to terminate an untenable, non-viable pregnancy.

We can NOT rely on the US Constitution or the currently seated US Supreme Court Justices to protect or promote the principles of democracy inside the territory of the United States.

As citizens and legal residence of the United States, the model of government – a representative democratic republic — initially configured by the 55 delegates of the Constitutional Convention and ratified by the 13 colonies, has been dissolved into a political fiefdom under the control of partisan politicians who appointed partisan judiciary to the US Supreme Court.

Becoming familiar with all 511 of these extraordinarily important nouns is useful in many ways. First, it provides a Justice Alito-approved list of exactly what all our constitutional rights are based on, provided as an easily confirmed fact —  they either do or do not appears in the US Constitution.

This is an extremely important topic under the current definition by these majority of the US Supreme Court that has legally concluded via the Dobbs Decision that the Constitutional rights of American are both defined by and confined to the 4,543 words actually  printed in the document signed by the members of the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787.

This means that the choice of vocabulary – the specific nouns and idea-words printed in the document – as having precedence over the general principles of governance that would normally be extrapolated by readers of the document based on the combined meaning of all four thousand-plus words used in the text, as well as the Bill of Rights and precedential decisions by the US Supreme Court .

Secondly, the list of these words is a simple and straightforward way to establish that the Constitution, all by itself without the Bill of Rights — exactly what Justice Alito did — has almost nothing to do with the lives or freedoms of American as individuals.

Happenstance of the English alphabet:

I discovered an interesting dispersal of alphabet letters. Five of letters of the alphabet – G, K, Q, X and Z — have few if any words associated with them. At the other end of the spectrum, the letters “C” and “P” are the apparent workhorse of the English language.  Who knew!

A ~ America, American, age, arrest, armies, ability, article, authors, account, adjourn, alliance, adoption, authority, attendance, affirmation, ambassadors, adjournment, appointments, amendments, appellate jurisdiction, Aid and Comfort, Advice and Consent {27}

B ~ bills, ballot, branch, bribery, behavior, bankruptcies, bill of attainder, breach of the peace {13}

C ~ Constitution, Congress, citizen, civil, choice, coin, class, cases, census, captures, concurrence, compensation, commerce, consent, credit, capitation, confederation, compact, control, claims, consequence, controversies, convention, compensation, commission, councils, commissions, Chief Justice, common defense, citizen classes, citizens & subjects, courts of law, cases of impeachment, cases of rebellion, consequences of appropriations, claims of the party, cessation of particular states, confession in open court, consent of the legislatures, citizen of the United States, commander in chief of the army and navy {77}

D ~ day, duty, delay, debts, death, desire, debate, duties, danger, district, dockyards, disability, discipline, discoveries, department, disagreement, domestic violence {18}

E ~ excises, exports, electors, enemies, election, execution, expiration,

engagements, enumeration, emoluments, establishment, expenditures, exclusive right, executive authority, executive departments, erection of fourths, ex post facto law, execution of his office {29}

F ~ felony, felonies, forfeiture, free persons, foreign nations, Full faith and credit {11}

G ~ general welfare {2}

H ~ honor, house, high seas, House of Representatives, Heads of Departments {10}

I ~ Indians, imposts, inventors, invasions, information, inhabitants, indictment, insurrection, impeachments, Indian tribes, inferior officers, inferior courts, intents and purposes, importation of persons, independence of the United States inability to discharge powers and duties {32}

J ~ Jury, justice, judgment, jurisdiction, judicial power, judicial proceedings, Judge of elections, judges of the Supreme Court {16}

K ~ King {1)

L ~ labor, land, land grants, law in fact, law in equity, law, Law of Nations, Laws of the Union legislature, Letters of Marque, liberty, list, limitations {25}

M ~ miles, manor, money, manner, member, militia, meeting, motives, majority, members, migration, magazines, measures, maritime jurisdiction, meeting of the legislature {19}

N ~ nays, navy, names, natural born citizen, naval forces, nobility, needful buildings, numbers, number of electors, number of senators and representatives {20}

O ~ oath, oath or affirmation, objections, office of the President of the United States, offenses, officers, opinion, orders, other officers, other crimes and misdemeanors, ordain and establish compensation, overt acts {29}

P ~ part, paragraph, party, places, prince, person, persons, people, ports, profit, powers, purpose, piracies, posterity, proceedings, proportion, pursuance, punishment, post office, post roads, public records, public ministers, principal officer, progress of science, pardons for offenses, president pro-tem, president of the senate, power of impeachment, privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, property belonging to the United States, privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states (66)

Q ~ quorum, question, qualifications {3}

R ~ ratified, Ratification of the conventions return, recess, receipts, reconsideration, regulations, religious test, removal, representative, reprieves, reprisal, resident, resignation, resolution, returns and qualifications, revenue, rule of naturalization, rules for the government and regulation of land, republican form of government {38}

S ~ seats, seat of government certificates, seat of the government of the United States, secrecy, securities, Section for guaranty, Senate, speech, speaker, section, session, senators, ships of war, services, suffrage, standards, statement, subject, Supreme Court, states, state legislature, state of the union, supreme law of the land {46}

T ~ tax, taxes, term, term of years, territory, term of years, Times, time of adjournment, tinder, tonnage, title, title of nobility, tranquility, training, tribunals, trial, trial of all crimes, treason, treasury, treaties, treason against the United States, trees, troops, testimony, trust  {40}

U ~ United States, Union, useful arts, unanimous consent {7}

V ~ value, vote, vessels, vacancies, vice president {6}

W ~ war, water, weights, writings, witnesses, writs of election {8}

X ~ {none}

Y ~ yeas, years, Year of our Lord {6}

Z ~ {none}


Total ~ 511 words

Signed on the 17th day of September, the 12th witness thereof, here on to subscribed our names,

  1. Washington – PRESID and deputy from Virginia

Ratified by: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Providence plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia


reference Slave Trade —

Article I granted scripted authority to the Legislative Branch as the “Powers of Congress” as well as “Powers Denied to Congress”Article II “vests” the executive Powers in the President and Article III “vests” the judicial Power of the United States in the Supreme Court and “such inferior court as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish”.  expand the economic engine that America was in order to provide a “mercantile” (modern word ‘entrepreneurial’) society that would be able to defend itself from foreign invaders and domestically organized threats to civil society.